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So, we're going to look at blood pressure now. So, blood pressure is a measure of the force that blood applies to the walls of the artery as it flows through them. Blood pressure is measured in milligrams of mercury, and a standard reading would be 120 over 80. So, if you go to the doctors and they take your blood pressure, you generally get the higher number first, followed by the lower number.

So, let's look at what that means. So, systolic blood pressure, so that's the first word, systolic blood pressure, is the pressure exerted on the arteries when the cardiac muscles, we're talking about the heart here, remember, under here, is contracted and pumping blood. The higher of the two numbers is noticed first, so that in this case when I said 120 over 80, 120 will be the systolic number. It is caused by an increased blood volume flowing through the arteries and therefore increased pressure. So that's how we get a systolic blood pressure.

Now the opposite to that is diastolic blood pressure, and here, again, it's the pressure exerted on the artery walls, but this time it's when the heart is in a relaxed state. The heart goes through a period of relaxation or diastolic to allow the chambers of the heart to refill prior to the next contraction. The diastolic blood pressure is the remaining or running pressure between the beats and is always smaller than the systolic blood pressure. So that's why we always get, for example, 120 above 80.

When it comes to measuring blood pressure, there are many different ways of doing this. Often, we go to our doctors and as a general health check they will take our blood pressure, and they would generally use like a cuff 'round the arm. Here I have a wrist monitor. So, it works in the same way. So, I would put this on my wrist, tighten it up, and then I would press "start." As I am doing this now the cuff is getting tighter and tighter and tighter. It reads up the scores on the dial, and after a while, the cuff will stop going tight and relax, and then at the end of that process then I should know my pressure. So that's just released now.

So, in high blood pressure, signs and symptoms will include things like a person might have crushing headaches. And these headaches would occur most of the time and dizzy spells. And so that would be a good time to maybe have a check of their blood pressure. Another condition is low blood pressure. Now, to give you an example of what low blood pressure feels like is that if you spent a long time sitting down all day on a chair watching the TV or something like that, and then suddenly you get up quickly and you get that really dizzy sort of feeling like the floor is coming up to meet you, that is an example of low blood pressure. What has happened is while you've been sitting down and not moving around the blood has pooled. Then as you've got up quickly the hydrostatic pressure within the blood system cannot adjust quick enough, and so, therefore, you've got a sort of like an imbalance, and that's what caused the dizziness. So that would be low blood pressure caused in that sense. But it also can be a medical condition as well. And so, therefore, again these signs of dizziness and feeling faint would be common signs and symptoms of low blood pressure.